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  • Future of HRTEM and Spectroscopy At present, modern nanosciences - materials science, biology, medicine and physics - merge together, enabling new contributions to society by interdisciplinary work of scientists from different fields. The SALVE project follows this trend with research combining the experience in the field of materials science and life sciences on electron-beam sensitive materials that can be imaged at voltages between 20 and 80 kV. To demonstrate the advances of the Cc/Cs corrected technology we focus on high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy, in particular on energy-filtered TEM. In the application we focus on our target materials which are low-dimensional materials as well as small molecules. In the analysis of more than 2500 publications on aberration-corrected (S)TEM, trends are found for lower and medium accelerating voltages, comparing the number of TEM and STEM publications, the materials used, the manufacturers, the number of higher and lower impact factor of the journals, and the use of chromatic aberration correction. In summary it can be stated that there is a rapidly growing market in all areas.
    Publications with a length of at least 3 pages are counted as 1 contribution, with a length of 2 pages are counted as ½ contribution.
  • Trend hardware aberration corrected electron microscopy: voltage 20 kV - 300 kV
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Accelerating voltage

    First papers on AC-TEM report on results obtained with 200 kV TEMs, redeemed by papers obtained with 300 kV TEMs. Since 2006, papers with 20-80 kV are published. In all voltage ranges, the number of publications using aberration-corrected electron microscopy is strongly increasing.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: High Impact-factor publications-medium-voltage
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Comparison of higher and lower impact factor publications

    We evaluated the journal impact factor in which publications using aberration-corrected TEM appeared. We distinguish between higher (>10) and lower (<10) impact factor publications. Since the beginning of aberration-corrected TEM, the average ratio of higher to lower impact factor publications for the voltage range 100 - 300 kV is 13%.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: High Impact-factor publications-medium-voltage
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Comparison of higher and lower impact factor publications

    Since the beginning of aberration-corrected low-voltage TEM, the average ratio of higher (>10) to lower (<10) impact factor publications is 33%. This extraordinarily high value shows the novelty of discoveries obtained by 20 - 80 kV AC-TEM, above all low-dimensional materials, which since 2004 continue to deliver groundbreaking new discoveries.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: methods TEM / STEM
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM, STEM, TEM/STEM

    The raise of aberration-corrected TEM and STEM started in 1997. In the first years, the ratio of number of publications that use TEM and the number of publications that use STEM was about 1:1 in the voltage range 100-300 kV. Since then this ratio decreased while the percentage of publications using both, TEM and STEM increases. The ratio of publications using TEM; STEM; TEM/STEM is today 18%; 69%; 13% at medium voltages.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: methods TEM / STEM
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM, STEM, TEM/STEM

    The application of AC-TEM (20-80 kV) at low voltages started in 2005. In the first years TEM configuration was used primarily. Since then, the use of STEM increased strongly, and today the ratio of publications that use TEM; STEM; TEM/STEM is 44%; 39%; 17%.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected medium voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Materials examined

    For AC-TEM/STEM with acceleration voltages between 100 kV and 300 kV, the application fields are dominated by classical materials (nanocrystals oxides and semiconductors). Low-D materials and biological objects only investigated in very exceptional cases like cross section views at 100-300 kV because these materials are quickly destroyed by medium voltage electron irradiation.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Materials examined

    For AC-TEM/STEM with acceleration voltages between 20 kV and 80 kV, the application fields are dominated by low-D materials. Some researchers perform STEM at 80 kV for classical materials to increase the scattering cross section. A breakthrough for direct imaging of biological materials has still not been reached.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Low-dimensional materials

    From the low-D material class, the number of publication on pure graphene is still increasing. The number of publications on pure CNT using AC-TEM is invariable. 2D chalcogenides show strong exponential increase. In 2015, Black Phosphorous (BP) has joined the familiy of 2D materials. The continuing discovery of new low-D materials explains the extraordinary high percentage of high impact publications in LV-AC-TEM.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM/STEM manufacturers

    The manufacturer ranking for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes based on the number of publications for the 100 to 300 kV acceleration voltage range is headed by FEI Electron Optics and JEOL Ltd. followed by Nion Corp., Hitachi and Zeiss.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    TEM/STEM manufacturers

    The manufacturer ranking for aberration-corrected (scanning-) transmission electron microscopes in the voltage range 20 to 80 kV now shows the same placement as for the medium voltage range, since Zeiss has exited the high resolution transmission electron microscopy market.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Corrector manufacturers

    The proportion of the two commercial manufacturers for aberration correctors, CEOS company and NION Corp. is corresponding to the manufacturer ranking since all manufactureres use CEOS correctors, except Nion, who produce their own correctors for their microscopes.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: materials
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Corrector manufacturers

    Aberration correctors in the 20 - 80 kV AC-TEM/STEM range are dominated by CEOS company. All microscopes from JEOL and FEI use CEOS correctors beside the 30 and 60 kV JEOL TEM/STEMs which use the low-voltage Cs/Cc corrector “DELTA“ developed by JEOL in the frame of the Triple-C project. As also for the medium-voltage range, Nion company is producing their own correctors.

  • Trend hardware aberration corrected low voltage electron microscopy: methods TEM / STEM
    New trends in AC-TEM

    Chromatic aberration correction

    Since 2009 the number of publications using Cs/Cc-correction is increasing and reaches today 10% in the lower voltage range and 2% in the medium voltage range, respectively. This reflects the importance of chromatic aberration correction to achieve atomic resolution at lower voltages. At present CEOS GmbH is the only commercial provider of Cs/Cc-correctors.

SALVE Committee

SALVE II Project